Vladimir M. Kosolapov, Vera N. Kreshtapova, Boris S. Maslov, Nicolay A. Semionov, Alexandr A. Zotov
Proceedings of the 14th International Peat Congress
agriculture, peat, peat-soils, reclamation
Theme III. Agricultural use of peat and peatlands
186 Gt of peat resources are concentrated in Russia where peatlands cover the area of some 570,000 km2; the area of arable organic soils is about 10 mln ha. The scientific basics for methodology and methods of peatlands and peat use in agriculture have been developed due to expedition investigations and experimental researches on peatland reclamation stations (1874-2008). The results of long-term experimental studies of peatlands in different regions were thoroughly analysed.
The paper reviews extensive literature on change of peat soils under amelioration and generalized of original experiments conducted at lowland peat soils of research station in Moscow, Ryazan’ and Smolensk oblasts in the European Russia. The study was concerned with changes in water and temperature regimes, water-physical and agrochemical properties of soil drainage and cultivation. The experiments were initiated in 1953-1954 and lasted until 2008. Cultivation of a reclamation regime for proper type of agricultural use is determined basing on theoretically well-founded formulae. Optimal significance of drainage standard for meadows on fens is 60-70 cm, for tilled crops – 100-120 cm.
It was found that sowing perennial grasses for forage and cattle grazing on peatlands is the most available usage of organic soils. Utilization of peat soils as fallow lands and complete use of tilled crops leads to organic matter mineralization and ground water contamination. The paper summarizes the experimental data. The power equivalent (through the summary of energy (MJ)) for any use of peat and peat soils was calculated as well.